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Short list of IEEE Standards

Posted in Networking (340),Security (1500) by Guest on the February 26th, 2009
  • 802.1 Internetworking
  • 802.2 Logical Link Control
  • 802.3 CMSA/CD or Ethernet
  • 802.4 Token Bus LAN
  • 802.5 Token Ring LAN
  • 802.6 Metropolitan Area Network or MAN
  • 802.7 Broadband Technical Advisory Group
  • 802.8 Fiber-Optic Technical Advisory Group
  • 802.9 Integrated Voice/Data Networks
  • 802.10 Network Security
  • 802.11 Wireless Networks
  • 802.12 Demand Priority Access LAN or 100VG-AnyLAN
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Useful Project Management Definitions

Posted in Projects (400) by Guest on the February 17th, 2009

Accountability Matrix. See responsibility assignment matrix.

Activity – An element of work performed during the course of a project. An activity normally has an expected duration, an expected cost, and expected resource requirements. Activities are often subdivided into tasks.

Activity Definition – Identifying the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the various project deliverables.

Activity Description (AD). A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally describes the scope of work of the activity.

Activity Duration Estimating – Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities.

Activity-On-Arrow (AOA) – See arrow diagramming method.

Activity-On-Node (AON) – See precedence diagramming method.

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) – Total costs incurred (direct and indirect) in accomplishing work during a given time period.

Actual Finish Date (AF) – The point in time that works actually ended on an activity. (NOTE: in some application areas, the activity is considered “finished” when work is “substantially complete”.)

Actual Start Date – The point in time that works actually started on an activity.

Administrative Closure – Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion.

Application Area – A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product of the project (i.e., by similar technologies or industry sectors) or the type of customer (e.g., internal vs. External, government vs. Commercial). Application areas often overlap.

Arrow – The graphic presentation of an activity. See also arrow diagramming method.

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) – A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start and the head represents the finish of the activity (the length of the arrow does not represent the expected duration of the activity). Activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the activities are expected to be performed. See also precedence diagramming method.

As-of-Date – See data date.


Backward Pass – The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the project’s end date. The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor. See also network analysis.

Bar Chart – A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called Gantt chart.

Baseline – The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g. cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline).

Baseline Finish Date – See scheduled finish date.

Baseline Start Date. See scheduled start date.

Budget at Completion (BAC). The estimated total cost of the project when done.

Budget Estimate – See Estimate

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) – The sum of the approved cost estimates (including any overhead allocation) for activities (or portions of activities) completed during a given period (usually project-to-date). See also earned value.

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS) – The sum of the approved cost estimates (including any overhead allocation) for activities (or portions of activities) scheduled to be performed during a given period (usually project-to-date). See also earned value.

Calendar Unit – The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project. Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in shifts or even in minutes. Used primarily in relation to project management software.

Change Control Board (CCB) – Formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes to the project baselines.

Chart of Accounts – Any numbering system used to monitor project costs by category (e.g., labor, supplies, and materials). The project chart of accounts is usually based upon the corporate chart of accounts of the primary performing organization. See also code of accounts.

Code of Accounts – Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each element of the work breakdown structure. See also chart of accounts.

Communications Planning – Determining the information and communications needs of the project stakeholders.

Concurrent Engineering – An approach to project staffing that, in its most general form, calls for implementer’s to be involved in the design phase. Sometimes confused with fast tracking.

Contingencies – See reserve and contingency planning.

Contingency Allowances – see reserve.

Contingency Planning – The development of a management plan that identifies alternative strategies to be used to ensure project success if specified risk events occur.

Contingency Reserve – A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in part (sometimes called “known unknowns”). For example, rework is certain; the amount of rework is not. Contingency reserves may involve cost, schedule or both. Contingency reserves are intended to reduce the impact of missing cost or schedule objectives. Contingency reserves are normally included in the project’s cost and schedule baselines.

Contract – A contract is a mutually binding agreement which obligates the seller to provide the specified product and obligates the buyer to pay for it. Contracts generally fall into one of three broad categories:

Fixed price or lump sum contracts – this category of contract involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product. Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets.

Cost reimbursable contracts – this category of contract involves payment (reimbursement) to the contractor for its actual costs. Costs are usually classified as direct costs (costs incurred directly by the project, such as wages for members of the project team) and indirect costs (costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as salaries for corporate executives). Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost reimbursable contracts often include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets or total cost.

Unit price contracts – the contractor is paid a preset amount per unit of service (e.g., $70 per hour for professional services or $1.08 per cubic yard of earth removed) and the total value of the contract is a function of the quantities needed to complete the work.

Contract Administration – Managing the relationship with the seller.

Contract Close-out – Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of all outstanding items.

Control – The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, evaluating possible alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as needed.

Control Charts – Control charts are a graphic display of the results , over time and against established control limits, of a process. They are used to determine if the process is “in control”  or in need of adjustment.

Corrective Action – Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the plan.

Cost Budgeting – Allo

9cating the cost estimates t
o individual project components.

Cost Control – Controlling changes to the project budget.

Cost Estimating – Estimating the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities.

Cost of Quality – The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and rework.

Cost Performance Index (CPI) – The ratio of budgeted costs to actual costs (BCWP/ACWP). CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a possible cost overrun using the following formula: original cost estimate/CIP = projected cost at completion. See also earned value.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) Contract – A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) Contract – A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.

Cost Variance (CV) – (1) Any difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less ACWP.

Crashing – Taking action to decrease the total project duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost.

Critical Activity – Any activity on a critical path. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Although some activities are “critical” in the dictionary sense without being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.

Critical Path – In a project network diagram, the series of activities which determines the earliest completion of the project. The critical path will generally change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule. Although normally calculated for the entire project, the critical path can also be determined for a milestone or subproject. The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. See critical path method.

Critical Path Method (CPM) – A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float). Early dates are calculated by means of a forward pass using a specified start date. Late dates are calculated by means of a backward pass starting from a specified completion date (usually the forward pass’s calculated project early finish date).

Current Finish Date – The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed.

Current Start Date – The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin.

Data Date (DD) – The point in time that separates actual (historical) data from future (scheduled) data. Also called as-of-date.

Definitive Estimate – See estimate.

Deliverable – Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item tat must be produced to complete a project or part of a project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer?

Dependency – See logical relationship.

Dummy Activity – An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with regular activity arrows. Dummies are shown graphically as dashed lines headed by an arrow.

Duration (DU) – The number of work periods (not including holidays or other non-working periods) required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. See also effort.

Duration Compression – Shortening the project schedule without reducing the project scope. Duration compression is not always possible and often requires an increase in project cost.

Early Finish Date (EF) – In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or the project) can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.

Early Start Date (ES) – In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or the project) can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.

**Earned Value (EV) – (1) A method for measuring project performance. It compares the amount of work that was planned with what was actually accomplished to determine if cost and schedule performance is as planned. See also actual cost of work performed, budgeted cost of work scheduled, budgeted cost of work performed, cost variance, cost performance index, schedule variance, and schedule performance index. (2) The budgeted cost of work performed for an activity or group of activities.

Earned Value Analysis – See definition (1) under earned value.

Effort – The number of labor units required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. Should not be confused with duration.

Estimate – An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project costs and durations and should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., plus or minus x percent). Usually used with a modifier (e.g., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility). Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply particular accuracy ranges (e.g., order-of-magnitude estimate, budget estimate, and definitive estimate in engineering and construction projects).

Estimate At Completion (ETC) – The expected additional cost needed to complete an activity, a group of activities, or the project. Most techniques for forecasting ETC include some adjustment to the original estimate based on project performance to date. Also called “estimated to complete”. See also earned value and estimate at completion.

Event-on-Node – A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes (or nodes) connected by arrows to show the sequence in which the events are to occur. Used in the original Program Evaluation and Review Technique.

Exception Report – Document that includes only major variations from plan (rather than all variations).

Expected Monetary Value – The product of an event’s probability of occurrence and the gain or loss that will result. For example, if there is a 50 percent probability that it will rain, and rain  will result in a $100 loss, the expected monetary value of the rain event is $50 (.5 X 100$).

Fast Tracking – Compressing the project schedule by overlapping activities that would normally be done in sequence, such as design and construction. Sometimes confused with concurrent engineering.

Finish Date – A point in time associated with an activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target or current.

Finish-to-Finish (FF) – See logical relationship.

Finish-to-Start (FS) – See logical relationship.

Firm Fixed Price (FFP) Contract – A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract) regardless of the seller’s costs.

Fixed Price Contract – See firm fixed price contract.

Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF) Contract – A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if it meets defined performance criteria.

Float – The a

mount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Also called slack, total float, and path float. See also free float.

Forecast Final Cost – See estimate at completion.

Forward Pass – The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. See also network analysis and backward pass.

Fragnet – See subnet

Free Float (FF) – The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities. See also Float.

Functional Manager – A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department or function (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, marketing).

Functional Organization – An organization structure in which staff are grouped hierarchically by specialty (e.g., production, marketing, engineering, and accounting at the top level; with engineering, further divided into mechanical, electrical, and others).

Gantt Chart – See bar chart.

Grade – A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., “hammer”) but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) – A network analysis technique that allows for conditional and probabilistic treatment of logical relationships (i.e., some activities may not be performed).

Hammock – An aggregate or summary activity (a group of related activities is shown as one and reported at a summary level). A hammock may or may not have an internal sequence. See also subproject and subnet.

Hanger – An unintended break in a network path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing logical relationships.

Information Distribution – Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.

Initiation – Committing the organization to begin a project phase.

Integrated Cost/Schedule Reporting – See earned value

Invitation for Bid (IFB) – Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Key Event Schedule – See master schedule

Lag – A modification of a logical relationship which directs a delay in the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10 day lag, the successor activity cannot start until 10 days after the predecessor has finished. See also lead.

Late Finish Date (LF) – In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finishes date).

Late Start Date (LS) – In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).

Lead – A modification of a logical relationship which allows an acceleration of the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10 day lead, the successor activity can start 10 days before the predecessor has finished. See also lag.

Level of Effort (LOE) – Support type activity (e.g., vendor or customer liaison) that does not readily lend itself to measurement of discrete accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of activity over a specific period of time.

Leveling – See resource leveling.

Life-cycle Costing – The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating various alternatives.

Line Manager – (1) The manger of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. (2) A functional manager.

Link – See logical relationship.

Logic – See network logic.

Logic Diagram – See project network diagram.

Logical Relationship – A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone. See also precedence relationship. The four possible types of logical relationships are:

Finish-to-start – The “from” activity must finish before the “to” activity can start.

Finish-to-finish – The “from” activity must start before the “to” activity can finish.

Start-to-start – The “from” activity must start before the “to” activity can start.

Start-to-finish – The “from activity must start before the “to” activity can finish.

Loop – A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional network analysis techniques such as CPM and PERT. Loops are allowed in GERT.

 

Management Reserve – A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which are impossible to predict (sometimes called “unknown unknowns” ). Management reserves may involve cost or schedule. Management reserves are intended to reduce the risk of missing cost or schedule objectives. Use of management reserve requires a change to the project’s cost baseline.

Master Schedule – A summary level schedule which identifies the major activities and key milestones. See also milestone schedule.

Mathematical Analysis – See network analysis.

Matrix Organization – Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.

Milestone – A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable.

Milestone Schedule – A summary level schedule which identifies the major milestones.  See also master schedule.

Mitigation – Taking steps to lessen risk by lowering the probability of a risk event’s occurrence or reducing its effect should it occur.

Modern Project Management (MPM) – A term used to distinguish the current broad range of project management (scope, cost, time, quality, risk, etc.) from narrower, traditional use that focused on cost and time.

Monitoring – The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan.

Monte Carlo Analysis – A schedule risk assessment technique that performs a project simulation many times in order to calculate a distribution of likely results.

Near-Critical Activity – An activity that has low total float.

Network – See project network diagram.

Network Analysis – The process of identifying early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. See also Critical Path Method, Program Evaluation and Review Technique, and Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique.

Network Logic – The collection of activity dependencies that make up a project network diagram.

Network Path – Any continuous series of connected activities in a project network diagram.

Node – One of the defining points of a network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines. See also arrow diagramming method and precedence diagramming method.

Order of Magnitude Estimate – See estimate.

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) – A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages to organizational units.

Organizational Planning – Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.

Overall Change Control – Coordinating changes across the entire project.

Overlap – See lead.

Parametric Estimating – An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate.

Pareto Diagram – A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were g

enerated by each identified cause.

Path – A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram.

Path Convergence – In mathematical analysis, the tendency of parallel paths of approximately equal duration to delay the completion of the milestone where they meet.

Path Float – See Float.

Percent Complete (PC) – An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work which has been completed on an activity or group of activities.

Performance Reporting – Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help ensure project progress.

Performing  Organization – The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.

PERT Chart – A specific type of project network diagram. See Program Evaluation and Review Technique.

Phase – See project phase.

Planned Finish Date (PF) – See scheduled finish date.

Planned Start Date(PS) – See scheduled start date.

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) – A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

Precedence Relationship – The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably regardless of the diagramming method in use.

Predecessor Activity – (1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which enters a node. (2) In the precedence diagramming method, the “from” activity.

Procurement Planning – Determining what to procure and when.

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Why should I bother with a Security Policy?

Posted in Compliances (1300),Policies - Standards (600),Security (1500) by Guest on the February 14th, 2009

The image that most frequently comes to mind when discussing security is that of the great firewall standing guard at the opening to your network, fending off attacks from malevolent hackers. Although a firewall will play a crucial role, it is only a tool that should be part of a more comprehensive strategy that will be necessary in order to responsibly protect the data on your network. For one thing, knowing how to set up a firewall to allow the communications you want to come through while safeguarding other data is a very tough nut to crack. Even if you do have the skills and expertise necessary to set up the firewall correctly, it may be impossible to know the risks management is willing to take with the data and to determine the amount of inconvenience to withstand in order to protect it. You also must consider how to secure the hosts being accessed? Even with firewall protection, there is no guarantee that some vulnerability won’t develop. And most likely there is than the one device at stake.

Modems, for example, may provide an access point for your network that completely bypasses your firewall. In fact, a firewall may increase the likelihood that someone will set up a modem for access to the Internet through another Internet service provider (ISP), because of the restrictions that your firewall may impose upon them, (something to keep in mind when you are setting up your firewall to begin with).

 

You may be providing restrictions or “protection,” that can turn out to be unnecessary once the consequences are clearly understood as a business case. On the other hand, the risks may justify the increased restrictions and ensuing inconvenience. But, unless the user has some awareness of these dangers and understands clear consequences for adding risk, there may not be much you can do.

Legal issues also arise. What legal obligations do you have to protect your data? If you are in a publicly traded company you have some definite responsibilities in this regard.

 

Securing your data involves more than plugging in a firewall with a slick GUI interface. What you need is a comprehensive plan of defense. And you need to communicate this plan in a manner that will be meaningful to management and end users. This requires education and training along with clearly spelled out consequences for violations. It is called a “security policy” and is the first step to responsibly securing your network. The policy may include installing a firewall, but you will want to define your security policy first. You should not have to design your security policy around the limitations of your firewall.

Writing the security policy is not a trivial task. It not only requires that technical personnel understand all the vulnerabilities that are involved, but also requires that they effectively communicate with management. Management must ultimately decide how much risk should be taken with the company’s assets, and how much expense should be incurred both in real dollars and inconvenience, in order to minimize the risks. It is the responsibility of technical personnel to make sure that management understands the implications of adding access to the network and to applications on the network, so that management has enough information to make these decisions. If the security policy does not come from the top, it will be difficult to enforce even minimal security measures.

 

For instance, if employees may become upset if they suddenly have to supply logins and passwords where they did not before, or are prohibited from particular types of Internet access. It is better to deal with these issues ahead of time and put the policy in writing.

The policies can then be communicated to the employees by management. Otherwise, employees will not take it seriously, or you will have constant political battles within the company regarding this issue. Not only will these battles have a negative impact on productivity, it is less likely that rational decision-making will be able to prevail in the heat of political turf wars.

The development of a security policy can be a highly charged political process, but once such a policy is in writing you’ll find that less time will be spent debating it. This does not mean that it can be done in a vacuum and imposed upon the organization. The needs of all groups within the company most be realistically considered. Employing the services of a reputable outside contractor may help to provide some needed objectivity that can overcome some of these difficulties.

http://www.bestitdocuments.com/Services.html

 

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Moving an Off-Screen Window

Posted in O S (375) by Guest on the February 1st, 2009

Sometimes a window will get positioned off of your screen where you can’t see the title bar. It is possible to move the window, and it’s not that hard to do. Just open the program that is giving you the problem, and do the following: 

  1. Press Alt + spacebar + M.
    Press the down arrow repeatedly until your title bar appears.
  2. Now you have full use of the title bar, and can minimize, maximize, and close your program more easily. Note that you can use this technique to move a window in ANY direction; just press Alt + spacebar + M and then press the appropriate arrow key.

Maximize a Window Using the Title Bar
If you ever have trouble clicking on the Maximize button, a quick way to maximize an application window is to double-click on the title bar. (Don’t double-click on the buttons, though.) If the window is maximized and you double-click on the title bar, the window will be restored to its last size. This gives you the same result as using the Restore button in the title bar.


Restoring and Maximizing Windows with the Keyboard
Follow these steps to make a window switch back and forth between full screen and reduced size:

1.        Press Alt + Spacebar to display the Control menu.
2.        Press the letter R; the window is restored to its reduced size.
3.        Press Alt + Spacebar to again display the Control menu.
4.        Press the letter X; the window is maximized.

Do steps 3 and 4 first if the window is already reduced.

More Keyboard Shortcuts
When working with text, it is more efficient to use keyboard shorcuts instead of the mouse. There are many shortcuts to learn. These are a few good ones to add to your list:

Ctrl + Backspace will delete entire words

Ctrl + Home will take you to the top of the document

Ctrl + Shift + Home will select all the data between the cursor and the top of the document

Ctrl + End will take you to the end of the document

Ctrl + Left Arrow will move you one word back

Ctrl + Right Arrow will move you one word forward

Shift + Home will select all of the text in a line from the cursor to the left

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